Abbreviations:ALT (alanine transaminase), BMI (body mass index), CAP (controlled attenuation parameter), CCR (chemokine receptor), CK-18 (cytokeratin-18 fragments), CKD (chronic kidney disease), CT (computed tomography), CVD (cardiovascular disease), EASD (European Association for the Study of Diabetes), EASL (European Association for the Study of the Liver), EASO (European Association for the Study of Obesity), ELF (enhanced liver fibrosis), F (fibrosis stage), FIB-4 (fibrosis 4 calculator), FLI (fatty liver index), HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), IFG (impaired fasting glucose), IR (Insulin resistance), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), MetS (metabolic syndrome), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), NAFL (non-alcoholic fatty liver), NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), NFS (NAFLD fibrosis score), NAS (NAFLD Activity Score), NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), NPV (negative predictive value), OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test), PNHS (paediatric NAFLD histological score), PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), PPV (positive predictive value), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), RCT (randomized controlled trials), SAF (steatosis, activity and fibrosis), T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), TM6SF2 (transmembrane 6 superfamily 2), UDCA (urso-deoxycholic acid), US (ultrasound)
- Chalasani N.
- Younossi Z.
- Lavine J.E.
- Diehl A.M.
- Brunt E.M.
- Cusi K.
- et al.
- ⁎Also called Primary NAFLD and associated with metabolic risk factors/components of Metabolic Syndrome:
- 1.Waist circumference ⩾94/⩾80 cm for Europid men/women.
- 2.Arterial pressure ⩾130/85 mmHg or treated for hypertension.
- 3.Fasting glucose ⩾100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L) or treated for T2DM.
- 4.Serum triacylglycerols >150 mg/dl (>1.7 mmol/L).
- 5.HDL cholesterol <40/50 mg/dl for men/women (<1.0/<1.3 mmol/L).
Prevalence and incidence
- Chalasani N.
- Younossi Z.
- Lavine J.E.
- Diehl A.M.
- Brunt E.M.
- Cusi K.
- et al.
Pathogenesis: Lifestyle and genes
- Brunt E.M.
- Kleiner D.E.
- Wilson L.A.
- Unalp A.
- Behling C.E.
- Lavine J.E.
- et al.
Non-invasive testing in paediatric NAFLD
Common metabolic disorders related to NAFLD
Diagnostic algorithm and follow-up
Natural history and complications
- Chalasani N.
- Younossi Z.
- Lavine J.E.
- Diehl A.M.
- Brunt E.M.
- Cusi K.
- et al.
Other extrahepatic disorders
Diet and lifestyle changes
- Sanyal A.J.
- Friedman S.L.
- McCullough A.J.
- Dimick-Santos L.
Challenges and opportunities in drug and biomarker development for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: findings and recommendations from an American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases-U.S. Food and Drug Administration Joint Workshop.
Antioxidants, cytoprotective and lipid lowering agents
Bariatric (metabolic) surgery
Conflict of interest
- Giulio Marchesini declares he does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Christopher P. Day declares he has been a consultant/advisor for Abbott Laboratories and Genfit and completed sponsored lectures for Abbott Laboratories.
- Jean-François Dufour declares he has been a consultant/advisor for Intercept and Genfit.
- Ali Canbay declares he does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Valerio Nobili declares he does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Vlad Ratziu declares he has been a consultant/advisor for Genfit, in addition has been on the advisory board for Gilead, Genfit, Roche and Galmed Pharmaceuticals.
- Herbert Tilg declares he does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Michael Roden has received research support and been involved in clinical trails for Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis Pharma and Sanofi-Aventis Germany. He has been a consultant/advisor for GI Dynamics, Sanofi-Aventis Germany and Merck & Co. Inc. He has completed sponsored lectures for Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk.
- Amalia Gastaldelli has received research support from Amylin-BMS-AstraZeneca and has been a consultant/advisor for Roche, Eli-Lilly and Sanofi-Aventis.
- Hannele Yki-Järvinen declares she does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Fritz Schick declares he does not have anything to disclose regarding funding or conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Roberto Vettor declares that he has been a consultant/advisor as well as received grants/research support from Sanofi-Aventis. In addition he has completed sponsored lectures for Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis and AstraZeneca.
- Gema Frühbeck declares that she is on the Novo Nordisk Obesity Scientific Communication Global Advisory Board.
- Lisbeth Mathus-Vliegen declares she does not have anything to disclose regarding funding and conflict of interest with respect to this manuscript.
- Supplementary data
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☆Contributors: Coordinator EASL: Giulio Marchesini; Panel members: Christopher P. Day, Jean-François Dufour, Ali Canbay, Valerio Nobili, Vlad Ratziu, Herbert Tilg; Coordinator EASD: Michael Roden; Panel members: Amalia Gastaldelli, Hannele Yki-Järvinen, Fritz Schick; Coordinator EASO: Roberto Vettor, Panel members: Gema Frühbeck, Lisbeth Mathus-Vliegen.
☆These Guidelines were developed by the EASL, EASD and the EASO, and are published simultaneously in the Journal of Hepatology, Diabetologia and Obesity Facts.