Background & Aims
Reactive cholangiocytes acquire a neuroendocrine-like phenotype, with synthesis and local release of neuropeptides and hormones. The mechanism that drives such phenotypical changes is still undefined. Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1 (PDX-1) is a transcription factor required for pancreatic development, that sustains pancreatic beta-cell response to injury and insulin synthesis. PDX-1 induces neuroendocrine-like transition of pancreatic ductal cells. Cholangiocyte response to injury is modulated by Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R), which, in the pancreas, activates PDX-1. We wanted to verify whether PDX-1 plays any role in cholangiocyte neuroendocrine-like transdifferentiation in response to injury.
PDX-1 expression was assessed in cholangiocytes from normal and one week bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Changes in PDX-1 expression and activation upon GLP-1R activation were then assayed. The effects of the lack of PDX-1 in cholangiocytes were studied in vitro by siRNA and in vivo by the employment of PDX-1-deficient (+/−) mice.
BDL but not normal cholangiocytes express PDX-1. GLP-1R activation elicits, in a PI3K-dependent fashion, PDX-1 expression, together with its nuclear translocation. In vitro, GLP-1R-induced increases in VEGF and IGF-1 mRNA expression were blunted in cells with PDX-1 siRNA. In vivo, the VEGF and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver after one week BDL was markedly reduced in PDX-1-deficient mice, together with reduced bile duct mass.
In response to injury, reactive cholangiocytes de novo express PDX-1, the activation of which allows cholangiocytes to synthesize IGF-1 and VEGF. These findings suggest that PDX-1 drives the acquisition of the neuroendocrine-like phenotype by cholangiocytes in response to cholestatic injury.
Abbreviations:PDX-1 (Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox-1), NRC (normal rat cultured cholangiocytes), BDL (bile duct ligation), cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate), FBS (fetal bovine serum), PKA (protein kinase A), PI3K (phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
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Published online: June 25, 2010
Accepted: April 12, 2010
Received in revised form: April 10, 2010
Received: October 25, 2009
© 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.