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Regular coffee but not espresso drinking is protective against fibrosis in a cohort mainly composed of morbidly obese European women with NAFLD undergoing bariatric surgery

  • Rodolphe Anty
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Address: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Pôle Référence Hépatite C, Hôpital de l’Archet 2, 151, Route Saint-Antoine de Ginestière. BP 3079, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France. Tel.: +33 4 92 03 59 43.
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Sophie Marjoux
    Affiliations
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lyon, Digestive Center, Lyon, France
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  • Antonio Iannelli
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Stéphanie Patouraux
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Biological Center, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Anne-Sophie Schneck
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Stéphanie Bonnafous
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Camille Gire
    Affiliations
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France
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  • Anca Amzolini
    Affiliations
    University of Medecine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Medecine, Romania
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  • Imed Ben-Amor
    Affiliations
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France
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  • Marie-Christine Saint-Paul
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Biological Center, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Eugenia Mariné-Barjoan
    Affiliations
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Department of Public Health, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 2, France
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  • Alexandre Pariente
    Affiliations
    Centre Hospitalier of Pau, Digestive Center, Pau, France
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  • Jean Gugenheim
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Philippe Gual
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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  • Albert Tran
    Affiliations
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1065, Team 8, “Hepatic Complications in Obesity”, Nice, F-06204 Cedex 3, France

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nice, Digestive Center, Nice, F-06202 Cedex 3, France

    University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Faculty of Medecine, Nice, F-06107 Cedex 2, France
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      Background & Aims

      The aim of this study was to determine the influence of coffee and other caffeinated drinks on liver fibrosis of severely obese European patients.

      Methods

      A specific questionnaire exploring various types of coffee (regular filtrated coffee and espresso), caffeinated drinks, and chocolate was filled in by 195 severely obese patients. All patients had liver biopsies that were analyzed according to the NASH Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Univariate and multivariate analyses of significant fibrosis were performed.

      Results

      Caffeine came mainly from coffee-containing beverages (77.5%). Regular coffee and espresso were consumed in 30.8% and 50.2% of the patients, respectively. Regular coffee, espresso, and total caffeine consumption was similar between patients with and without NASH. While consumption of espresso, caffeinated soft drinks, and chocolate was similar among patients, with respect to the level of fibrosis, regular coffee consumption was lower in patients with significant fibrosis (F ⩾2). According to logistic regression analysis, consumption of regular coffee was an independent protective factor for fibrosis (OR: 0.752 [0.578–0.980], p = 0.035) in a model including level of AST (OR: 1.04 [1.004–1.076], p = 0.029), presence of NASH (OR: 2.41 [1.007–5.782], p = 0.048), presence of the metabolic syndrome (NS), and level of HOMA-IR (NS). Espresso, but not regular coffee consumption was higher in patients with lower HDL cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, and the metabolic syndrome.

      Conclusions

      Consumption of regular coffee but not espresso is an independent protective factor for liver fibrosis in severely obese European patients.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), NASH (non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis), BMI (body mass index), ALT (alanine amino-transferase), AST (aspartate amino-transferase), HDL (high density lipoprotein), LDL (low density lipoprotein), HOMA1-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), IDF (International Diabetes Federation), NAS (NAFLD activity score), TGF (tumor growth factor), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), UGT (UDP glucuronosyltransferases)

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