Abbreviations:ACLF (acute-on-chronic liver failure), ALF (acute liver failure), HE (hepatic encephalopathy), GLS (glutaminase), ROS (reactive oxygen species), IL (interleukin), TNF (tumour necrosis factor), BT (bacterial translocation), SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth), DM (diabetes mellitus), IR (insulin resistance), COX (cyclooxygenase), OTC (ornithine transcarbamylase), OPE (ornithine-phenylacetate), LOLA (L-ornithine L-aspartate)
Pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy in hospitalized patients
- Joshi D.
- O’Grady J.
- Patel A.
- Shawcross D.
- Connor S.
- Deasy N.
- et al.
Inflammatory response, infections and sepsis
Neuroinflammation, hyponatremia and oxidative stress
Bacterial translocation (BT) and microbiome
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR)
The GABA system
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy
Definitions and general issues
- Montagnese S.
- Schiff S.
- Amodio P.
Practical diagnostic recommendations
Clinical features and clinical scales
- Bajaj J.S.
- Cordoba J.
- Mullen K.D.
- Amodio P.
- Shawcross D.L.
- Butterworth R.F.
- et al.
History taking and patient profiling
- Montagnese S.
- De Rui M.
- Schiff S.
- Ceranto E.
- Valenti P.
- Angeli P.
- et al.
Response to treatment
Management of hepatic encephalopathy in a hospitalized cirrhotic patient
Treatment of the acute episode
General measures and monitoring
Airway, breathing, and circulation
Role of the precipitating event
Glucose, nutrition, and electrolytes
Targeting the gut
Albumin and albumin dialysis
The role of benzodiazepine antagonists
Embolization of portacaval shunts
TIPSS-related hepatic encephalopathy
- Jalan R.
- Olde Damink S.W.
- Ter Steege J.C.
- Redhead D.N.
- Lee A.
- Hayes P.C.
- et al.
Role of liver transplantation
Conflict of interest
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