Abbreviations:HCV (hepatitis C virus), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), MSM (men who have sex with men), iv (intravenous), PegIFNα (pegylated interferon-alfa), RBV (ribavirin), SVR (sustained virological response), GT (genotype), DAA (direct-acting antiviral), NS3 (nonstructural protein 3), SOF (sofosbuvir), LDV (ledipasvir), DAC (daclatasvir), CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections), EASL ILC (European Association for the Study of the Liver Study International Liver Conference), cART (combination antiretroviral therapy), NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor), PIs (protease inhibitors), P-gp (P-glycoprotein), BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), ddI (didanosine), d4T (stavudine), HBV (hepatitis B virus)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
- Hepatitis C virus infection.N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 41-52
- Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence.Hepatology. 2013; 57: 1333-1342
- Hepatitis C Virus prevalence among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the US adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group.Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 831-837
- Viral hepatitis and HIV coinfection.J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 353-367
- European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C coinfection in HIV-infected adults.HIV Med. 2008; 9: 82-88
- Care of patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus: 2007 updated recommendations from the HCV-HIV International Panel.AIDS. 2007; 21: 1073-1089
- Treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis with recombinant human alpha interferon. A preliminary report.N Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 1575-1578
- A pilot study of combination therapy with ribavirin plus interferon alfa for interferon alfa-resistant chronic hepatitis C.Gastroenterology. 1994; 107: 812-817
- Ribavirin with or without alpha interferon versus no intervention, placebo or alpha interferon for chronic hepatitis C.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; 1: CD002234
- Interferon for interferon naive patients with chronic hepatitis C.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; 2: CD000370
- Sustained virologic response to antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a cure and so much more.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52: 889-900
- An overview of emerging therapies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.Clin Liver Dis. 2011; 15: 515-536
- Pegylated interferon alfa-2b vs. standard interferon alfa-2b, plus ribavirin, for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2004; 292: 2839-2848
- Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons.N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 451-459
- Randomized trial comparing pegylated interferon alpha-2b versus pegylated interferon alpha-2a, both plus ribavirin, to treat chronic hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus patients.Hepatology. 2009; 49: 22-31
- Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for HIV-HCV genotype 1 coinfected patients: a randomized international trial.HIV Clin Trials. 2012; 13: 142-152
- Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 438-450
- Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 1207-1217
- Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 2405-2416
- Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 1195-1206
- Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 2417-2428
- Boceprevir versus placebo with pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in patients with HIV: a randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial.Lancet Infect Dis. 2013; 13: 597-605
- Combination therapy with telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in patients with HIV: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159: 86-96
- Telaprevir for HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients failing treatment with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (ANRS HC26 TelapreVIH): an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial.Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 59: 1768-1776
- Boceprevir or telaprevir based triple therapy against chronic hepatitis C in HIV coinfection: real-life safety and efficacy.PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0125080
- Favourable SVR12 rates with boceprevir or telaprevir triple therapy in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.Neth J Med. 2015; 73: 324-330
- Virological response rates for telaprevir-based hepatitis C triple therapy in patients with and without HIV coinfection.HIV Med. 2014; 15: 108-115
- Management of acute and chronic HCV infection in persons with HIV coinfection.J Hepatol. 2014; 61: S108-S119
- Treatment of genotype 1 HCV infection in the HIV coinfected patient in 2014.Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013; 10: 408-419
- Managing HIV/hepatitis C co-infection in the era of direct acting antivirals.BMC Med. 2013; 1: 234
- Virologic response following combined ledipasvir and sofosbuvir administration in patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection.JAMA. 2015; 313: 1232-1239
Naggie S, Cooper C, Saag M, Yang J, Stamm L, Pang PS, et al. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks in patients coinfected with HCV and HIV-1., Seattle, February 23–24 ed., 2015, p. Abstract LB152.
- Ombitasvir, paritaprevir co-dosed with ritonavir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV-1: a randomized trial.JAMA. 2015; 313: 1223-1231
Rockstroh J, Nelson M, Katlama C, Lalezari J, Mallolas J, Bloch M, et al. C-EDGE co-infection: phase 3 study of grazoprevir/elbasvir in patients with HCV/HIV., Vienna, April 22–26 ed., 2015, p. Abstract P0887.
Wyles DL, Ruane P, Sulkowski MS, Dietrich D, Luetkemeyer AF, Morgan TR, et al. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for treatment of HCV genotypes 1–4 in HIV-HCV coinfection: the ALLY-2 study., Vienna, April 22–26 ed., 2015, p. Abstract LP01.
Sogni P, Gilbert C, Lacombe K, Piroth L, Rosenthal E, Dominguez S, et al. Safety and efficacy of all-oral DAA regimens in HIV-HCV coinfected cirrhotic patients from the prospective ANRS CO13 – HEPAVIH cohort., Vienna, April 22–26 ed., 2015, p. Abstract LP20.
Christensen S, Ingiliz P, Hueppe D, Lutz T, Simon KG, Schewe K, et al. German cohort on sofosbuvir based therapy for HCV/HIV- and HCV-infection (GECOSO)., Seattle, February 23–24 ed., 2015, p. Abstract 646.
- Direct-acting antivirals trump interferon-alpha in their capacity to rescue exhausted T cells upon HCV clearance.J Hepatol. 2014; 61: 459-461
- Restoration of HCV-specific CD8+ T cell function by interferon-free therapy.J Hepatol. 2014; 61: 538-543
Barrett G, Shivasabesan G, Wang C, Osinusi A, Kohli A, Meissner EG, et al. Altered HCV specific T cell immunity very early in interferon free HCV DAA therapy., 58 ed., 2015, p. S1.
- Differences in HCV-specific T cell responses between chronic HCV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.Eur J Immunol. 2005; 35: 3493-3504
- Diminished frequency of hepatitis C virus specific interferon gamma secreting CD4+ T cells in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients.Gut. 2006; 55: 1484-1487
- The magnitude and breadth of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells depend on absolute CD4+ T-cell count in individuals coinfected with HIV-1.Blood. 2005; 105: 1170-1178
- Impaired hepatitis C virus-specific T cell responses and recurrent hepatitis C virus in HIV coinfection.PLoS Med. 2006; 3: e492
- Outcome of acute hepatitis C is related to virus-specific CD4 function and maturation of antiviral memory CD8 responses.Hepatology. 2006; 44: 126-139
- CD8+ cell responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the liver of persons with HCV-HIV coinfection versus HCV monoinfection.J Infect Dis. 2005; 191: 702-709
- Type I interferon elevates co-regulatory receptor expression on CMV- and EBV-specific CD8 T cells in chronic hepatitis C.Front Immunol. 2015; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00270
EASL. Recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2015, 2015.
AASLD-IDSA. Recommendations for testing, managing and treating hepatitis C, 2015.
- Viral hepatitis C therapy: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014; 53: 409-427
- Drug interactions between antiretrovirals and new or emerging direct-acting antivirals in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection.Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014; 27: 36-45
- HIV-hepatitis C virus co-infection in the era of direct-acting antivirals.Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014; 11: 241-249
- Drug interactions with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C: implications for HIV and transplant patients.Ann Pharmacother. 2015; 49: 674-687
German P, Garrison K, Pang PS, Stamm L, Ray A, Shen G, et al. Drug–drug interactions between anti-HCV regimen ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and antiretrovirals., Seattle, February 23–24 ed. 2015, p. abstract 82.
- Drug-drug interaction profile of the all-oral anti-hepatitis C virus regimen of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir.J Hepatol. 2015; 15: 10
Khatri A, Wang T, Wang H, Podsadecki T, Trinh R, Awni W, et al. Drug–drug interactions of the direct acting antiviral regimen of ABT-450/r, ombitasvir and dasabuvir with emtricitabine + tenofovir, rilpivirine and efavirenz., Washington DC, September 5–9 ed., 2014, p. Abstract V-483.
Khatri A, Wang T, Wang H, Podsadecki T, Trinh R, Awni W, et al. Drug–drug interactions of the direct acting antiviral regimen of ABT-450/r, ombitasvir and dasabuvir with HIV protease inhibitors., Washington DC, September 5–9 ed., 2014, p. Abstract V-484.
FDA Prescribing Information Viekira Pack. www accessdata fda gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/206619lbl pdf 2015.
- Current knowledge and future perspectives on acute hepatitis C.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015; 15: 10
- Alarming incidence of hepatitis C virus re-infection after treatment of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected MSM.AIDS. 2011; 25: F21-F27
- Hepatitis C virus reinfection incidence and treatment outcome among HIV-positive MSM.AIDS. 2013; 27: 2551-2557
- Evidence of a large, international network of HCV transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 1609-1617
- Detection of a sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor-resistance variant in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual man.Gastroenterology. 2014; 147: 599-601
- The natural history of chronic hepatitis C in a cohort of HIV-negative Italian patients with hereditary bleeding disorders.Blood. 2001; 98: 1836-1841
- The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection after 22 years in a unique homogenous cohort: spontaneous viral clearance and chronic HCV infection.Gut. 2001; 49: 423-430
- The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection 18 years after an epidemic outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis in a plasmapheresis centre.Gut. 1999; 44: 563-567
- Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C virus RNA and histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C.Hepatology. 1998; 27: 1717-1722
- Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups.Lancet. 1997; 349: 825-832
- Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. The Multivirc Group.Hepatology. 1999; 30: 1054-1058
- Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis.J Hepatol. 1997; 26: 1-5
- Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study.Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 1632-1641
- Decreasing mortality and changing patterns of causes of death in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.HIV Med. 2013; 14: 195-207
- Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the course of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis.Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33: 562-569
- Effect of HCV infection on cause-specific mortality after HIV seroconversion, before and after 1997.Gastroenterology. 2013; 144: 751-760
- Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study.Lancet. 2003; 362: 22-29
- Determinants of survival following HIV-1 seroconversion after the introduction of HAART.Lancet. 2003; 362: 1267-1274
- Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected individuals and the impact of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a meta-analysis.AIDS. 2008; 22: 1979-1991
- Hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: diagnosis, natural history, meta-analysis of sexual and vertical transmission, and therapeutic issues.Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 3365-3373
- Liver fibrosis progression is related to CD4 cell depletion in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.J Infect Dis. 2001; 183: 134-137
- Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV.Braz J Infect Dis. 2006; 10: 17-21
- Hepatic steatosis in HIV-HCV coinfected patients in France: comparison with HCV monoinfected patients matched for body mass index and HCV genotype.Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007; 26: 1489-1498
- Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the prevalence and severity of steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.J Hepatol. 2006; 44: 1026-1032
- HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006; 41: 582-589
- Liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal liver enzymes: influence of HIV infection.J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16: 790-795
- Impact of HIV on liver fibrosis in men with hepatitis C infection and haemophilia.Haemophilia. 2011; 17: 103-111
- Factors influencing liver fibrosis and necroinflammation in HIV/HCV coinfection and HCV monoinfection.Infection. 2013; 41: 959-967
- Advanced liver fibrosis by transient elastography, fibrosis 4, and alanine aminotransferase/platelet ratio index among Asian hepatitis C with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection: role of vitamin D levels.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 29: 1706-1714
- Evaluating liver fibrosis by transient elastometry in patients with HIV-HCV coinfection and monoinfection.Hepat Mon. 2014; 14: e15426
- Non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis and fibrosis in HIV/HCV- and HCV- infected patients.Ann Hepatol. 2013; 12: 740-748
- Transient elastography discloses identical distribution of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients on HAART.Eur J Med Res. 2010; 15: 139-144
- There is no difference in hepatic fibrosis rates of patients infected with hepatitis C virus and those co-infected with HIV.Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008; 41: 223-228
- Similar progression of fibrosis between HIV/HCV-infected and HCV-infected patients: Analysis of paired liver biopsy samples.Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 8: 1070-1076
- Didanosine (ddI) associates with increased liver fibrosis in adult HIV-HCV coinfected patients.J Viral Hepat. 2012; 19: 685-693
- Progression of liver fibrosis in monoinfected patients by hepatitis C virus and coinfected by HCV and human immunodeficiency virus.Arq Gastroenterol. 2013; 50: 19-22
- Comparison of liver fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients by transient elastometry.Scand J Infect Dis. 2014; 46: 797-802
- Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis c.J Hepatol. 2001; 34: 730-739
- Smoking is associated with steatosis and severe fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C but not B.Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44: 752-759
- The gastrointestinal tract and AIDS pathogenesis.Gastroenterology. 2009; 136: 1965-1978
- Progression of fibrosis in HIV and hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin-based therapy: analysis of risk factors.Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46: 768-774
- New antiretroviral drugs: a review of the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and resistance profile of tipranavir, darunavir, etravirine, rilpivirine, maraviroc, and raltegravir.Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009; 10: 2445-2466
- Severe liver disease associated with prolonged exposure to antiretroviral drugs.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006; 42: 177-182
- Dramatic decline in the HIV-1 RNA level over calendar time in a large urban HIV practice.Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53: 600-604
- HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention.Lancet. 2014; 384: 258-271
- Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update.Hepatology. 2009; 49: 1335-1374
- Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2012 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA panel.JAMA. 2012; 308: 387-402
DHHS. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents, 2015.
- Fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected adults: prospective analysis of 435 liver biopsy pairs.Hepatology. 2014; 59: 767-775
- Pathogenesis of accelerated fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection.J Infect Dis. 2013; 207: S13-S18
- Hepatic decompensation in antiretroviral-treated patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus compared with hepatitis C virus-monoinfected patients: a cohort study.Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160: 369-379
- Antiretroviral therapy and sustained virological response to HCV therapy are associated with slower liver fibrosis progression in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients: study from the ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH cohort.Antivir Ther. 2012; 17: 1335-1343
- Fast fibrosis progression between repeated liver biopsies in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus.Hepatology. 2009; 50: 1056-1063
- No increased risk of hepatotoxicity in long-term use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected patients.HIV Med. 2012; 13: 448-452
- A clinicopathological cohort study of liver pathology in 301 patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.Hepatology. 2015; 61: 1721-1729
- Hepatic safety of efavirenz in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis.J Infect. 2012; 64: 204-211
- The effect of HIV viral control on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in veterans with hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015; 68: 456-462
- Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection.N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 1889-1898
- ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV.N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 1983-1992
- Grazoprevir-elbasvir combination therapy for treatment-naive cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med. 2015; 24: 10-0785