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The hepatitis delta virus: Replication and pathogenesis

  • Camille Sureau
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Addresses: Département des agents transmissibles par le sang, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 6 rue Alexiandre Cabanel, Paris 75739, France. Tel.: +33 1 44 49 30 56 (C. Sureau), or Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and of Clinical Pathology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland. Tel.: +41 22 37 95 800 (F. Negro).
    Affiliations
    Molecular Virology laboratory, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine (INTS), CNRS INSERM U1134, Paris, France
    Search for articles by this author
  • Francesco Negro
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Addresses: Département des agents transmissibles par le sang, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 6 rue Alexiandre Cabanel, Paris 75739, France. Tel.: +33 1 44 49 30 56 (C. Sureau), or Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and of Clinical Pathology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland. Tel.: +41 22 37 95 800 (F. Negro).
    Affiliations
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

    Division of Clinical Pathology, University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
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      Summary

      Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective virus and a satellite of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Its RNA genome is unique among animal viruses, but it shares common features with some plant viroids, including a replication mechanism that uses a host RNA polymerase. In infected cells, HDV genome replication and formation of a nucleocapsid-like ribonucleoprotein (RNP) are independent of HBV. But the RNP cannot exit, and therefore propagate, in the absence of HBV, as the latter supplies the propagation mechanism, from coating the HDV RNP with the HBV envelope proteins for cell egress to delivery of the HDV virions to the human hepatocyte target. HDV is therefore an obligate satellite of HBV; it infects humans either concomitantly with HBV or after HBV infection. HDV affects an estimated 15 to 20 million individuals worldwide, and the clinical significance of HDV infection is more severe forms of viral hepatitis – acute or chronic –, and a higher risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison to HBV monoinfection. This review covers molecular aspects of HDV replication cycle, including its interaction with the helper HBV and the pathogenesis of infection in humans.

      Abbreviations:

      HDV (hepatitis delta virus), RNP (ribonucleoprotein), HBV (hepatitis B virus), HDAg (hepatitis delta antigen), RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA), ORF (open reading frame), S-HDAg (small-HDAg), L-HDAg (large-HDAg), DIPA (delta-interacting protein A), NES (nuclear export signal), SVP (subviral particle), HSPG (heparan sulfate proteoglycan), AGL (antigenic loop), NTCP (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma)

      Keywords

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