Abbreviations:DW (diffusion-weighted), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), CE (contrast-enhanced), US (ultrasound), CT (computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), MFC (mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma), OATP (organic anionic transporting polypeptides), MRPs (multidrug resistance proteins), Gd-BOPTA (Gadobendate dimeglumine), Gd-EOD-OTPA (Gadoxetic acid), ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient), 18F-FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose), 18F-FLT (18F-fluorothymidine), LM (liver metastases), CRC (colorectal carcinoma), NET (neuroendocrine tumours), CR (colorectal), NE (neuroendocrine), NEC (neuroendocrine carcinoma), SIRT (selective internal radiotherapy), PRRT (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy), G (grade), SSTR (somatostatin receptor), GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor), 18F-DOPA (6-18F-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), 11C-5-HTP (β-[11C]-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan), SPECT (single positron emission computed tomography), SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy), SSAs (somatostatin analogues), 68Ga-SSAs (68Ga-radiolabelled somatostatin analogues), 68Ga-DOTATOC ([68Ga-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide), 68Ga-DOTANOC ([68Ga-DOTA,1-Nal3]octreotide), 68Ga-DOTATATE ([68Ga-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate))
Functional imaging methods
Imaging hepatocellular function: hepatobiliary MR contrast agents
Imaging tissue cellularity and architecture: diffusion-weighted MRI
Imaging tumour microvasculature: perfusion imaging
Imaging tumour metabolism: PET
Primary liver tumours
Added value of hepatobiliary MR contrast agents in primary liver tumours
Added value of diffusion-weighted MRI in primary liver tumours
Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) – American College of Radiology [Internet]. [cited 2016 Jan 7]. Available from: http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Resources/LIRADS.
- Kokabi N.
- Camacho J.C.
- Xing M.
- Qiu D.
- Kitajima H.
- Mittal P.K.
- et al.
Added value of perfusion imaging in primary liver tumours
Added value of metabolic imaging in primary liver tumours
Secondary liver tumours
Added value of hepatobiliary contrast and diffusion-weighted MRI in secondary liver tumours
Added value of perfusion imaging in secondary liver tumours
Added value of molecular imaging in colorectal liver metastases
- Brendle C.
- Schwenzer N.F.
- Rempp H.
- Schmidt H.
- Pfannenberg C.
- la Fougère C.
- et al.
Added value of molecular imaging in neuroendocrine liver metastases
Added role of molecular imaging in non-colorectal, non-neuroendocrine liver metastases
- Kauhanen S.P.
- Komar G.
- Seppänen M.P.
- Dean K.I.
- Minn H.R.
- Kajander S.A.
- et al.
- Burge M.E.
- O’Rourke N.
- Cavallucci D.
- Bryant R.
- Francesconi A.
- Houston K.
- et al.
Limitations and realistic clinical use of functional imaging techniques
Conflict of interest
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