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Diagnosis and treatment of ascites

Published:January 21, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.01.011
      Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis and its development is a sign of significant portal hypertension.
      • Tsochatzis E.A.
      • Bosch J.
      • Burroughs A.K.
      Liver cirrhosis.
      At a volume of more than 1.5 l ascites usually can be detected by physical examination. Ascites in cirrhosis is the result of a vicious cycle involving arterial splanchnic vasodilation, decreased effective blood volume (despite a compensatory increase in cardiac output), renal vasoconstriction with resulting sodium retention, and finally extracellular fluid retention.
      • Arroyo V.
      • Colmenero J.
      Ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis: pathophysiological basis of therapy and current management.
      Systemic inflammation can exacerbate portal hypertension, contribute to the development of ascites, and impair prognosis.
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