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Evidence-based recommendations on the management of extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

  • Manuel Ramos-Casals
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Address: Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep Font, CELLEX-IDIBAPS, Department of Autoimmune Diseases ICMiD, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: +34 93 2275774; fax: +34 93 2271707.
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep Font, CELLEX-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain

    Department of Autoimmune Diseases, ICMiD, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain

    Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Anna Linda Zignego
    Affiliations
    Interdepartmental Center MASVE, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
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  • Clodoveo Ferri
    Affiliations
    Chair and Rheumatology Unit, Medical School, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Policlinico di Modena, Modena, Italy
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  • Pilar Brito-Zerón
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep Font, CELLEX-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain

    Department of Autoimmune Diseases, ICMiD, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain

    Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital CIMA- Sanitas, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Soledad Retamozo
    Affiliations
    Laboratory of Autoimmune Diseases Josep Font, CELLEX-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain

    Rheumatology Department, Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba, INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD (INICSA), National Scientific and Technical Research Council, CONICET - CORDOBA - Argentina
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  • Milvia Casato
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
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  • Peter Lamprecht
    Affiliations
    Department of Rheumatology & Vasculitis Center, University of Lübeck, Germany
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  • Alessandra Mangia
    Affiliations
    Liver Unit, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
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  • David Saadoun
    Affiliations
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), F-75005 Paris, France

    INSERM, UMR_S 959, F-75013 Paris, France

    CNRS, FRE3632, F-75005 Paris, France

    AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, F-75013 Paris, France
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  • Athanasios G. Tzioufas
    Affiliations
    Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
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  • Zobair M. Younossi
    Affiliations
    Chairman, Department of Medicine, Inova Fairfax Medical Campus, Vice President for Research, Inova Health System, Professor of Medicine, VCU-Inova Campus, The Claude Moore Health Education and Research Center, Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Falls Church, VA, USA
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  • Patrice Cacoub
    Affiliations
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), F-75005 Paris, France

    INSERM, UMR_S 959, F-75013 Paris, France

    CNRS, FRE3632, F-75005 Paris, France

    AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, F-75013 Paris, France
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  • on behalf of theInternational Study Group of Extrahepatic Manifestations related to HCV (ISG-EHCV)
    Author Footnotes
    ‡ See Supplementary material for list of members.
  • Author Footnotes
    ‡ See Supplementary material for list of members.
Published:February 17, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.02.010
      The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a linear, single-stranded RNA virus identified in 1989, is a hepatotropic virus that causes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer and is a global health problem. It is recognized as one of the hepatic viruses most often associated with the development of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), which can be classified according to the principal underlying etiopathogenic process (autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic or neoplastic) [
      • Ramos-Casals M.
      • Font J.
      Extrahepatic manifestations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
      ]. HCV infected patients with extrahepatic involvement require a multidisciplinary approach and a complex therapeutic management.

      Keywords

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