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Hepatic stellate cell activation and pro-fibrogenic signals

  • Chandrashekhar R. Gandhi
    Correspondence
    Address: Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnett Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Tel.: +1 513 517 1090; fax: +1 513 558 8677.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
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Published:September 19, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.06.001
      Liver fibrosis is a primary response to injury of etiologies including metabolic abnormalities, viral (hepatitis C and B virus [HCV/HBV]) and other infections, toxins and drugs. Chronic exposure to the injury agent(s) can cause fibrosis to progress to irreversible cirrhosis. Although effective therapies for HCV-induced fibrosis are now available, the new challenge is the alarming increase in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic and alcoholic steatohepatitis. A clear understanding of the mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis is critical.

      Abbreviations:

      AcCHO (acetaldehyde), ADPN (adiponectin), Akt (protein kinase B), aHSC (activated hepatic stellate cell), Ang1 (angiopoietin-1), Ang II (angiotensin II), AP1 (activator protein-1), AT1R (angiotensin receptor 1), cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), Bcl2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), C/EBP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), ECM (extracellular matrix), EF (endothelial fenestration), EGF (epidermal growth factor), ERK (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase), Ets (erythroblast transformation specific), FXR (farnesoid X receptor), GTP (Guanosine-5′-triphosphate), HSC (hepatic stellate cell), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), ICAM1 (intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1), IFN (interferon), IL (interleukin), JAK (janus kinase), KC (Kupffer cell), KLF6 (Kruppel like factor 6), Lhx2 (the LIM homodimer protein), LepR (leptin receptor (CD295, OB-R)), LPS (Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), MMP (matrix metalloproteinase), (macrophage), N (neutrophil), NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells), NOX (NADPH oxidase), OPN (osteopontin), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase), PK (protein kinase), PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), RAR (retinoid acid receptor), ROS (reactive oxygen species), RXR (retinoid X receptor), SEC (sinusoidal endothelial cell), SHP (small heterodimer partner), SMA (smooth muscle actin), Smad (small mother against decapentaplegic), Sp1 (specificity protein 1), STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription), TGF (transforming growth factor), TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase), TLR (toll-like receptor), TNF (tumor necrosis factor), uPa (urokinase-type plasminogen activator), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)

      Keywords

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