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Early liver transplantation for corticosteroid non-responders with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis: The SURFASA score

Published:January 24, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.12.033

      Highlights

      • In patients with acute-severe autoimmune hepatitis treated with corticosteroids, the LT-free survival rate is 66%.
      • INR at the introduction of corticosteroids and the evolution of INR and bilirubin values after 3 days of therapy are highly predictive of LT or death.
      • The SURFASA score [-6.80+1.92∗(D0-INR)+1.94∗(Δ%3-INR)+1.64∗(Δ%3-bilirubin)] combines these 3 variables.
      • The SURFASA score can rapidly identify non-responders to corticosteroid therapy who require referral for LT.

      Background & Aims

      In acute severe autoimmune hepatitis (AS-AIH), the optimal timing for liver transplantation (LT) remains controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine early predictive factors for a non-response to corticosteroids and to propose a score to identify patients in whom LT is urgently indicated.

      Methods

      This was a retrospective, multicenter study (2009-2016). A diagnosis of AS-AIH was based on: i) Definite or probable AIH based on the simplified IAIHG score; ii) international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.5 and/or bilirubin >200 μmol/L; iii) No previous history of AIH; iv) Histologically proven AIH. A treatment response was defined as LT-free survival at 90 days. The evolution of variables from corticosteroid initiation (day-D0) to D3 was estimated from: Δ%3 = (D3–D0)/D0.

      Results

      A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 52 (39–62) years; 72% were female. Overall survival reached 88%. One hundred and fifteen (90%) patients received corticosteroids, with a LT-free survival rate of 66% at 90 days. Under multivariate analysis, D0-INR (odds ratio [OR] 6.85; 95% CI 2.23–21.06; p <0.001), Δ%3-INR ≥0.1% (OR 6.97; 95% CI 1.59–30.46; p <0.01) and Δ%3-bilirubin ≥-8% (OR 5.14; 95% CI 1.09–24.28; p <0.04) were predictive of a non-response. The SURFASA score: -6.80+1.92∗(D0-INR)+1.94∗(Δ%3-INR)+1.64∗(Δ%3-bilirubin), created by combining these variables, was highly predictive of LT or death (AUC = 0.93) (88% specificity; 84% sensitivity) with a cut-off point of <–0.9. Below this cut-off, the chance of responding was 75%. With a score higher than 1.75, the risk of dying or being transplanted was between 85% and 100%.

      Conclusion

      In patients with AS-AIH, INR at the introduction of corticosteroids and the evolution of INR and bilirubin are predictive of LT or death. Within 3 days of initiating corticosteroids, the SURFASA score can identify non-responders who require a referral for LT. This score needs to be validated in a prospective cohort.

      Lay summary

      The management of patients with acute severe autoimmune hepatitis is highly challenging, particularly regarding their early referral for liver transplantation. We found that international normalized ratio at the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and the evolution of international normalized ratio and bilirubin values after 3 days of therapy were highly predictive of liver transplantation or death. We are thus proposing a score that combines these variables and identifies patients in whom liver transplantation is urgently required.

      Graphical abstract

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