Manuscript submission:

Editorial policies
Types of manuscripts
Preparing your manuscript
Research Data
Review process
Submission checklist
Contact the Editorial office


Ethics in publishing
For information on Ethics in publishing and ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Authorship and contributors
As stated in the ICMJE recommendations, credit for authorship requires:
(a) substantial contributions to the conception and design; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of the data,
(b) the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content,
(c) final approval of the version to be published, and
(d) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the article are appropriately investigated and resolved. An author contribution statement is required as part of the title page (study concept and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; statistical analysis; obtained funding; administrative, technical, or material support; study supervision).

Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager at [email protected] from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include:
(a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the order of the authors rearranged; and
(b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.
In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed. After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue, any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' which contains forms for copyright assignment, financial disclosures and authorship responsibility. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement. It is the authors' responsibility to make sure these forms are signed and duly returned to the Editorial office via e-mail. If these forms are not received the manuscript will not be published.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals. Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see the 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information).


Declaration of interest
All authors are required to provide a Declaration of Interest Statement and should complete a standard form, which is available at This form should be uploaded with the revised manuscript at submission. Further information is available at as well. The forms should be uploaded as a single supplementary disclosure file.
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, activities, additional affiliations, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also Further information and an example of a conflict of interest form can be found at:

Drug declaration
A drug declaration statement/disclosure form will be sent to the corresponding author after acceptance. Authors must select the statement that is most appropriate for their manuscript. This form as well as the copyright forms must be returned to the Editorial office via e-mail.

Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Financial disclosure
Authors are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Ethics approval
Manuscripts reporting data from research conducted on humans must include a statement of assurance in the methods section of the manuscript reading that: (1) written informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study and (2) the study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval by the institution's human research committee.

Clinical trials
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Interventions include but are not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like. Authors of manuscripts reporting clinical trials must submit a proof of institutional review board approval from all participating centers, the original approved protocol, patient information sheet and statistical analysis plan, and all subsequent amendments to either document. All these documents must be in English language. If the manuscript is accepted, the protocol and statistical analysis plan will be published as an online supplement. The trial registration number must be included on the title page of the manuscript reporting a registered clinical trial. Failure to do so will prevent entry to the peer review process.

For randomized control trials, in appropriate places in the manuscript, please provide the following items:

  • The identity of those who designed the protocol and analyzed the data.
  • A statement indicating that at least one author had access to all of the data and can vouch for the integrity of the data analyses.
  • Please disclose any funding sources and their role, if any, in the writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication.
  • Statements of role, if any, of medical writer or editor.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in the Journal of Hepatology in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Acceptable trial registries include the following and others listed at

Clinical trial results
In line with the position of the ICMJE, the Journal of Hepatology will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardize consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Experimental animal studies
Manuscripts reporting experiments using animals must include a statement giving assurance that all animals received human care and that study protocols comply with the institution's guidelines. Studies involving animal experiments should conform to the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (, developed by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) to improve standards and reporting of animal research. Please review the ARRIVE checklist and disclose all relevant animal research information as directed.
Where applicable the strain and sex should be reported, if both male and females animals were used then the number of each should be specified. In relation to cell cultures and tissue samples used the sex of the animals used should be specified.

For all manuscripts reporting animal experimentation the authors must state in the methods section:
  • A statement referring to the above guidelines.
  • A statement on institutional approval.
  • Where applicable:
    – The strain and sex should be reported, if both male and females animals were used then the number of each should be specified;
    – Genetic background of animals used;
    – In relation to cell cultures and tissue samples the sex of the animals;
    – State the transgenic or genetic mouse model used, and what control mice were used;
    – Housing of animals, cage system, enriched environment, diet, food, light or dark cycle.

Mouse strains and cell lines should be italicized and superscript if they are knockout or transgenic strains, e.g., ob/ob (KO), p53+/+, p53-/-.
Statistical methods used should be outlined, in addition to if sex was considered a factor in the statistical analysis.

Reporting guidelines
The Journal of Hepatology endorses the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any health research manuscript. You can find the most commonly required reporting guidelines below or on the EQUATOR Network , which also gives general information on how to choose the correct guideline and why guidelines are important.

At the minimum, your article should report the content addressed by each item of the identified checklist or state that the item was not considered in the study (for example, if you did not use blinding, your article should say so). Meeting these basic reporting requirements will greatly improve the value of your manuscript, may facilitate/enhance the peer review process, and may enhance its chances for eventual publication.

This free tool will help you work out which reporting guidelines are right for you:

Some common study types and the appropriate guidelines are listed below. If you cannot find an appropriate guideline here, search the full EQUATOR database and talk to our editor.

You may need to use more than one guideline, depending on your research. For example, if you randomly assigned human participants to one of two interventions, then conducted unstructured interviews with each participant, you will need to use CONSORT, COREQ, and TIDIER together. To make sure you collect all of the relevant guidelines, check each major heading, even if you have already found a relevant guideline under a previous major heading.

If you are reporting a protocol
– Use the SPIRIT guideline for the protocol of a clinical trial
– Use the PRISMA-P guideline for the protocol of a systematic review

If you are reporting a review of a section of the existing literature
– Use the MOOSE guideline for a review of observational studies
– Use the PRISMA guideline for any other kind of systematic review or meta-analysis

If you are reporting on animal research
– Use the ARRIVE guideline for research on animals in a lab

If you are reporting descriptive data (either alone or alongside quantitative data)
– Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies
– Use the SRQR guideline for any other descriptive data (qualitative research)

If you are reporting research into diagnosis
– Use the STARD guideline if you compared the accuracy of a diagnostic test with an established reference standard test
– Use the REMARK guideline if you evaluated the prognostic value of a biomarker
– Use the TRIPOD guideline if you developed, validated, or updated a prognostic or diagnostic prediction modelling tool

If you are reporting research into an intervention or treatment on people
– Use the TIDIER guideline to fully describe your intervention
– Use the CHEERS guideline for an economic evaluation of the interventions

If you are reporting research into an intervention, treatment, exposure, or protective factor on people
– Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies
– Use the CONSORT guideline or one of its extensions:
• If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND
• You controlled which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received, AND
• You used a random allocation method to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received.
i.e., a randomized controlled trial
– Use the STROBE guideline or one of its extensions:
• If you selected your participants after they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, OR
• You selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study AND you did not control which intervention/exposure/etc. they received (they decided/their doctor decided/life just happened)
i.e., an observational study
– Use the TREND guideline:
• If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND
• If CARE, CONSORT, and STROBE are not applicable to your research AND
• You used a non-random way to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. your participants received, such as which hospital they went to or what their clinical symptoms were.
i.e., a non-randomized trial

It is now mandatory at the Journal of Hepatology for reporting all research to provide a completed CTAT methods table in the supplementary data. The CTAT methods template table can be downloaded here.

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Fast-track peer review
Fast-track peer review offers a rapid peer review and publication of major original articles that are seen as important for public health. Authors who wish their articles to be considered for fast-track peer review should send the manuscript title and abstract along with a letter request to the journal office [email protected]. Authors will then be notified if the manuscript can be uploaded and fast-tracked for peer review. Those articles not selected for fast-track peer review will be encouraged to be submitted via the usual process.

Original manuscripts
Original articles describing clinical and basic investigations in the field of hepatology. Manuscripts are expected to be concise, well organized, and clearly written. They should not exceed 6000 words, including the abstract, references, tables, and figure legends. A maximum of 8 tables and/or figures is allowed. References should not exceed a maximum of 100.

Review articles and Seminars
Review articles on selected clinical and basic topics of interest for the readers of the Journal of Hepatology that are solicited by the Editors. Review articles are expected to be clear, concise and updated. The maximum length is 5000 words. The inclusion of a maximum of 8 high quality tables and/or colored figures to summarize critical points is highly desirable. Reviews should include 5 to 10 key points that briefly summarize or highlight the main content of the article. References should not exceed a maximum of 150.

Seminars articles will be focused on a broad subject, typically multi-authored, describing basic, translational and clinical aspects of a problem and can be as long as 9000 words. The inclusion of a maximum of 12 high quality tables and/or colored figures to summarize critical points is highly desirable. Seminars should include 5 to 10 key points that briefly summarize or highlight the main content of the article. References should not exceed a maximum of 300.

Special sections
The Journal of Hepatology will contain special sections that focus on one or more specific topics within the hepatology field. All special sections will be solicited by the Editors.
In case the authors want to propose a possible special section article, they should approach the Journal office with a clear outline of the article that details the:
  • list of authors with their respective institutions and their qualification to write such an article
  • an outline with the headings, a title, and an abstract of the proposed article detailing (a) the content, (b) why it is timely, (c) its novelty and (d) reasons why it is appropriate for Journal of Hepatology

Expert Opinion
Expert Opinion articles will provide an editorialized analysis of a narrow issue by one or several thought leaders in the field. The analysis should provide the author's vision, interpretation or recommendation on the topic in question. It should not aim at providing a consensual view but a personal interpretation. The maximum length is 2500 words excluding the summary, references, tables, and figures. The inclusion of a maximum of 2 high-quality tables and 2 colored figures to summarize critical points is highly desirable. References should not exceed a maximum of 25. Comments about Expert Opinion articles should be submitted as Letters to the Editor (see below for formatting details).

Hepatology Snapshot
Hepatology Snapshot consists of a large single page figure, comprised of drawings, schematic diagrams and tables that graphically summarize current knowledge about a particular subject within the field of hepatology. The figure is accompanied by a short summary article that should not exceed a maximum of 600 words. References should not exceed a maximum of 10. The snapshot should contain a descriptive title. In lieu of the article, a detailed figure legend which includes all relevant background information can be included and may be incorporated into the main figure as a text box. For recent examples, please see

Please note that the Journal of Hepatology will offer support when designing the snapshot and therefore we ask that you collaborate with our in-house team to produce a creative and comprehensive snapshot.

What is your diagnosis?
What is your diagnosis? articles will have an educational purpose, emphasizing the relevance and correct interpretation of liver biopsy findings (and other forms of imaging) for diagnosis of liver diseases. Articles will be commissioned by the editors.

Articles will be divided into two parts. The first page will contain a short title (no more than 60 characters), announcing the topic but not the diagnosis; a brief summary of the clinical case (should not exceed 250 words); and a maximum of 4 high-quality images (preferentially liver biopsy; but may also include other type of diagnostic imagery). On the second page, the authors will reveal the diagnosis, including a very brief summary of the patient's outcome and the diagnostic challenges of the disease (should not exceed 500 words). This part should include a maximum of 4 high-quality images indicating the most relevant findings, along with a figure legend. The images may be the same as the first part or new images that were crucial for achieving the final diagnosis. The maximum number of authors is 5 and references should not exceed 3.

As all articles will be shared on Twitter and other social media channels in the form of a quiz, authors should provide 4 different possible answers (including the correct answer).

This section consists of invited brief editorial comments on articles published in the Journal of Hepatology. The length of an editorial should not exceed 1500 words and 1 table or 1 figure is allowed. References should not exceed a maximum of 20.

Case reports
Case reports are not encouraged and will only be accepted if they represent an outstanding contribution to the aetiology, pathogenesis or treatment of a specific liver disorder. Regular case reports will not be accepted even if they provide interesting clinical information. The length of a case report should not exceed 3000 words. A total number of 2 tables or figures is allowed. References should not exceed a maximum of 10.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication if they are related to articles published in recent issues of the Journal of Hepatology. The maximum number of authors is 3 for a letter commenting on a published article without providing original data and 5 for a letter providing original data. Letters with a higher number of authors will be reclassified as original articles. The length of a Letter to the Editor should not exceed 800 words and can be subject to further editing by the Editors. A total number of 1 table or figure is allowed. References should not exceed a maximum of 10. Starting with the January 2023 issue, all Letters to Editor will be published e-only.

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Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. When you first submit a manuscript, you can choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when submitting a revised version of your paper you will be requested to put your paper into a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.

The following guidelines refer to Research Articles. While published manuscripts are expected to conform tightly to the following guidelines, this is not a requirement at first submission (see the Your Paper, Your Way requirements section below). However, the authors need to ensure that the paper contains all the information that will allow the Editorial team to be able to perform adequate 'peer-review'.

Your Paper, Your Way requirements
  • Authors may submit the first version of their manuscript (text, figures and tables) as a single file. This can be a Word or PDF file, in any format or layout, and figures and tables can be placed within the text.
  • A title page that includes the Title, authors names and affiliations, conflict of interest statements, financial support statement and authors contributions.
  • Figures should be of high enough quality for refereeing.
  • There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to evaluate a manuscript (Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions).
  • References can be in any style or format, as long as the style is consistent. Author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, article title (where required), year of publication, volume and issue /book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOIs is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage.
  • If the article is reporting on randomized controlled trials authors must include all versions of the study protocol, including statistical analysis plan, the CONSORT flow diagram and trial checklist. These documents will be published as an online supplement if the article is accepted.

When a paper reaches the revision stage, authors will be requested to deliver any items that are still required for publication, for example editable source files. See details below.

Submission checklist
The Journal of Hepatology now requires a complete author checklist to be submitted with all revised manuscripts (which covers animal welfare, human subjects, data deposition and ethics), via the online submission system. We do encourage authors to submit the checklist on their first submission.

Article structure
The manuscript must be arranged as follows:
  • Title page
  • Abstract in the Journal of Hepatology format, including a lay summary
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods (or Patients and methods)
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Abbreviations
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure legends
  • Figures

Title page
A title page must be provided for all submissions regardless of the type of manuscript being submitted. The title page should consist of all the following headings:
  • Title: no more than 130 characters. As a general guideline, the most effective titles are no more than 10–12 words and should readily give readers an overall view of the paper's significance. Please refrain from using abbreviations in the title that may not be possible for the wide readership of the Journal of Hepatology. The title of an accepted article may be modified by the editors.
  • Authors: a list of all authors with first and surnames. Author names should be spelled out; DO NOT USE INITIALS.
  • Affiliations: names of department(s) and institution(s) of all authors
  • Corresponding author: name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and electronic mail address of the corresponding author
  • Keywords: a minimum of three and maximum of 12 keywords (except for Letters to Editor). Use British spelling and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Please refer to to compile a comprehensive list of keywords
  • Electronic word count
  • Number of figures and tables
  • Conflict of interest statement: a statement to declare any conflict of interest. For further information see our Conflict of interest
  • Financial support statement: a statement of all authors' financial support given in order to complete the study or write the manuscript. See the Financial disclosure
  • Authors contributions: a list of the authors' contributions to the study; concept and design, experiments and procedures; writing of article etc.
  • Clinical trial number

A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should have the following layout:
  • Background & Aims: Context of research and state the main aim or objective of the study
  • Methods: Essential information on the methods used, including details of the following where applicable: basic study design (e.g. randomized controlled trial, cross sectional study, cohort study, case series, etc.); setting, please specify study location (primary or tertiary care setting, hospital, general community, etc.); number of participants and how they were selected; intervention, the method of administration and the duration
  • Results: Description of the key findings of the study, including absolute values and risk differences. Confidence intervals and p values should also be reported
  • Conclusions: Concise summary that emphasizes new and important aspects of the study or observations

Abstracts should be no longer than 275 words. Do not use non-standard abbreviations, footnotes or references in the abstract. Our complete list of non-defined abbreviations can be found here. An electronic word count of the abstract must be included.
Case reports, Reviews, Special section articles, and Letters to the Editor do not require a structured abstract.

Lay summary
Two or three sentences summarizing the main message of the article expressed in plain English to describe your findings to a non-medical audience.
The submission of the lay summary is mandatory when submitting a revised manuscript, however, the authors are encouraged to include it at submission.

Graphical abstract
This should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Graphical abstracts should be provided as an image with a minimum of 531 × 531 pixels (h × w) using a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. If you are submitting a larger image then please use the same ratio. Please note that your image will be scaled proportionally to fit in the available window on ScienceDirect, which is a 200 × 500 pixel rectangle.
The submission of the graphical abstract is mandatory when submitting a revised manuscript, however, the authors are encouraged to include it at submission. For more information and examples please visit

Graphical abstract - example 1   Graphical abstract - example 2
Graphical abstract - example 3   Graphical abstract - example 4

Highlights are mandatory for this journal for the revised original article. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials/Patients and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications can be described here. All original manuscripts must provide a methods section that highlights the key methods, more detailed methods can be referred to and described in the Supplementary data file.
The manuscripts should include a complete and detailed description of what was done. This includes a description of the design, measurement and collection of data, the study objective and major hypotheses, type and source of subjects, inclusion and exclusion criteria and measures of outcome, number of subjects studied and why this number was chosen. Any deviation from the study protocol should be stated. The baseline characteristics of any compared groups should be described in detail and, if necessary, adjusted for in the analysis of the outcome. For randomized clinical trials the following should also be clearly documented: treatments, sample size estimation, method of random allocation and measures taken for maintaining its concealment including blinding, numbers treated, followed-up, being withdrawn, dropping out, and having side effects (numbers and type). Please refer to our Statistics section for further details. Please refer to our Editorial policies section and below for providing details in relation to animal and human trials, drugs and chemicals, genomic and proteomic data, DNA and protein sequencing, microarray data, listing of antibodies and primers. It is now mandatory at the Journal of Hepatology to include all of these details in a completed CTAT methods table in the Supplementary data. Please see the CTAT methods section and use the following link to download the CTAT methods template table.

Results should be clear and concise. Results should be explained and illustrated by using Tables and Figures. There is a maximum of 8 tables and/or figures per original article. Please refer to tables and figures
formatting section.

The conclusions should provide a summary of the key results and discuss the appropriateness and impact of this original piece of work, where necessary referring to the literature to support the new findings.

Please include an alphabetical list of all non-standard abbreviations used within the manuscript.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.)

Formatting of text
The submitted manuscript must be typed double-spaced throughout and pages numbered (including references, tables and figure legends). Preferably using a "standard" font (we prefer Times/Arial 12). For mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters, use normal text.

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English should use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Formatting of tables
Tables should be provided as Word files (*.doc) compatible files. No TIFF, JPG, PDF or PowerPoint files are acceptable. When submitting tables in Microsoft Word use the table function, no tab, space or colors should be used. Tables should contain a maximum of 10 columns. Tables submitted in landscape orientation will not be accepted. Tables should include a table number, title (in bold), table legend, and if necessary footnotes (including any abbreviations). Include tables in the submitted manuscript as a separate section at the end of the manuscript.

Formatting of figures
All graphics submitted to the Journal of Hepatology should be sent at their actual size, which is 100% of their print dimension and in portrait orientation.
Figures should be supplied in the following preferred file formats: PDF (*.pdf), PowerPoint (*.ppt), Adobe Illustrator (*.ai, *.eps), Photoshop (*.psd) files in grayscales or in RGB color mode. Figures should be sent in an editable format, and not compressed into a .ppt or .pdf file. Figures should not be sent in JPG (*.jpg) format.
Photographs (scans, immunofluorescences, EM, and histology images) should be submitted as: 1) TIFF (*.tif) with a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch; or 2) Illustrator compatible EPS files with RGB color management (*.eps); or 3) Photoshop (*.psd) or editable PDF (*.pdf) files (grayscales or RGB) at the appropriate resolution which is:
  • 300 dpi for color figures
  • 600 dpi for black and white figures
  • 1200 dpi for line-art figures

For all photomicrographs, when possible, a scale bar should appear on the photograph. For Western blots original blots must be provided. Photographs of identifiable patients should be accompanied by written permission to publish from patient(s).
Panel lettering should be in Arial bold 14 pt, capitalized and no full stop (A, B) while lettering in figures (axes, conditions), should be in Arial 8 pt, lower case type with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. No type should be smaller than 6 pt.
If after acceptance the quality of the figures does not match the standards of the Journal of Hepatology, the authors will be asked to resubmit the figures at the required quality.

Image integrity and standards
While it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, the Journal of Hepatology is applying the following policy:
No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they are done in the whole figure (not in specific parts of it) and do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
Grouping of images from parts of a gel/different gels must be made explicit.
Please follow the CSE's guidelines for more information:

Electrophoretic gels and blots
Positive and negative controls, as well as molecular size markers, should be included on each gel and blot, either in the main figure or an expanded data supplementary figure. For previously characterized antibodies, a citation must be provided. For antibodies less well characterized in the system under study, a detailed characterization that demonstrates not only the specificity of the antibody, but also the range of reactivity of the reagent in the assay, should be published as Supplementary Information or in an antibody profile database (e.g. Antibodypedia, 1DegreeBio).

The display of cropped gels and blots in the main paper is encouraged if it improves the clarity and conciseness of the presentation. In such cases, the cropping must be mentioned in the figure legend. (Some journals require full-length gels and blots in supplementary information wherever possible.)
  • Quantitative comparisons between samples on different gels/blots are discouraged; if this is unavoidable, the figure legend must state that the samples derive from the same experiment and that gels/blots were processed in parallel. Vertically sliced images that juxtapose lanes that were non-adjacent in the gel must have a clear separation or a black line delineating the boundary between the gels. Loading controls (e.g. actin, tubulin,…) must be run on the same blot, if not possible with the same protein aliquot and/or with a red Ponceau coloration of the membrane. Sample processing controls run on different gels must be identified as such, and distinctly from loading controls.
  • Cropped gels in the paper must retain important bands.
  • Cropped blots in the body of the paper should retain at least six band widths above and below the band.
  • High-contrast gels and blots are discouraged, as overexposure may mask additional bands. Authors should strive for exposures with gray backgrounds. Multiple exposures should be presented in supplementary information if high contrast is unavoidable.
  • For quantitative comparisons, appropriate reagents, controls and imaging methods with linear signal ranges should be used.

Microscopic imaging data
The Journal of Hepatology has adopted the policy of the Journal of Cell Biology in requiring the following information regarding microscope image acquisition:
  • Make and model of microscope
  • Type, magnification, and numerical aperture of the objective lenses
  • Temperature
  • Imaging medium
  • Fluorochromes
  • Camera make and model
  • Acquisition software
  • Any software used for image processing subsequent to data acquisition. Please include details and types of operations involved (e.g., type of deconvolution, 3D reconstitutions, surface or volume rendering, gamma adjustments, etc.)

If you export files from a microscope or other acquisition device, be sure to use consistent file formats (8 bit, 16 bit, etc.).

For presentation of fluorescence images, signals from individual channels should be shown in gray scale to reveal the full dynamic range of signal intensities, enabling color-blind individuals to appreciate your data. Merged images should be presented in color, with appropriate colors for each individual channel.

Micrographs must include a bar to indicate the scale.

Illustration services
The Journal of Hepatology has an in-house graphic designer who will specifically work on all accepted manuscript to format the tables/figures to comply with the Journal's style. Upon acceptance the corresponding author will be asked to complete a form stating that the author gives permission to re-design graphics. This form, along with the copyright and drug declaration forms, must be returned to the Editorial office via e-mail.

Figure legends
Figure legends should be listed one after the other, as part of the text document, separate from the figure files. Please do not write a legend below each figure.
Each figure legend should have a brief overarching title (in bold with figure number) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a description of each panel, and the symbols used. Enough information should be provided in the figure legend text to permit interpretation of figures without reference to the text, but should not contain any details of methods, or exceed 100 words.
The statistical test used as well as the values of statistical significance (whether significant or not) should always be included in the figure legends.
The abbreviated word for figure "Fig." should be typed and bolded, followed by the figure number and a period (i.e., "Fig. 1."). Every figure legend should have a title written in bold. If a figure contains multiple sections (i.e., A, B, C, D) the letter for these subsections should be in capital letters, and should be surrounded by parenthesis [i.e., (A)…(B)…(C)…(D)]. Figures should be numbered according to the order which they were cited.

An example of how a figure caption should look:

Fig. 1. Levels of AMH in the serum of women who were HCV+, HBV+, or controls. (A) Mean serum levels (bars represent SD and bold lines inside the box plot median levels). Levels of significance: *p = 0.011; ˆp = 0.009 (Mann-Whitney U-test). (B)….

Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent.

An example of how references should look within the text:

HVPG was measured by hepatic vein catheterization using a balloon catheter according to a procedure described elsewhere14,15 and used as an index of portal hypertension.16

An example of how the reference list should look:

[14] Merkel C, Bolognesi M, Bellon S, Zuin R, Noventa F, Finucci G, et al. Prognostic usefulness of hepatic vein catheterization in patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Gastroenterology 1992;102:973-979.
[15] Groszmann RJ, Wongcharatrawee S. The hepatic venous pressure gradient: anything worth doing should be done right. Hepatology 2004;39:280-282.

Citation in text
References are ordered as they appear in the text. Titles of all cited articles are required. All articles in the list of references should be cited in the text and, conversely, all references cited in the text must be included in the list. Personal communications and unpublished data should be cited directly in the text by the first author, without being numbered.

For revised manuscripts, the authors need to check all the citations in the Reference Section. All authors should be included in reference lists unless there are more than six, in which case only the first six authors should be given, followed by et al. For all listed citations with two or more authors who share first authorship, the Journal of Hepatology stipulates those authors' names to be in bold type. It is the corresponding and first authors' responsibility to ensure that these names appear in bold in the reference section when submitting a revised draft (first drafts of submissions are exempt from this requirement). This allows giving due credit to joint-first- authors (see the "Editorial" in the February 2015 issue of Journal of Hepatology for more on this topic). Also, please include the phrase "Author names in bold designate shared co-first authorship" at the beginning of the references section if you have citations that have joint first authors. Example: (Smith T, Jones R, Davis G, et al. Article title).

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

An example of how such a reference should look:

[5] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Supplementary data
Supplementary material, can be uploaded during the submission process.

The Supplementary material should have a manuscript title, list of authors, a table of contents, followed by the list of investigators (if there is one), text (such as methods), figures, tables, and then references. Supplementary material must be prepared as a single Word file with pages numbered (including references, tables and figure legends) using Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt double-spaced. Sections have to be 12 pt bold, subsections have to be 12 pt, italics. For mathematical symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters, use normal text, NOT symbol. The references must be in accordance with the Journal of Hepatology reference style (see References).
Figures have to be included with legends below each figure. Figure legends consist of a title (bold, and labelled Supplementary Fig. 1) and separate descriptions for each panel, labelled by capital letters in parenthesis. Tables have to be included with table titles (bold, and labelled Supplementary Table 1) on top of the table and footnotes below. Very large tables (e.g., microarray data) should be submitted as Excel files. The Supplementary material will NOT be edited for style.

Supplementary movies may be submitted through Elsevier Editorial System as (*.mov), (*.avi), (*.mpeg), or (*.gif) files. By choosing the submission item labelled "Supplementary data," the PDF builder will imbed links within the PDF where Editors and reviewers will be able to download the files. This also works for Excel files that do not display properly once converted to a PDF. Please note that the size limit for these items is 10 MB per file.
Large data sets (too large to be included within the manuscript) must be submitted online. Each file should be prepared as PDF, Excel, or text. The size of the file should not exceed 10MB. Upon acceptance, if Supplementary material does not comply with the guidelines authors will be requested to change the formatting.
All supplementary data referred to in the main manuscript must be labelled as: Supplementary Materials & methods; Supplementary Fig. # and Supplementary Table #.

CTAT methods
The Journal of Hepatology are continually improving the standard of published articles. In order for our readers to have the ability to replicate methods and data published in our journal we now insist that all publications complete the CTAT method tables (to be uploaded as a supplementary file). CTAT stands for the complete, transparent, accurate and timely account of all methods undertaken in a study. The CTAT table details all reagents, resources, cell lines, antibodies, DNA and protein sequences, databases etc., used in a study, allowing readers complete transparency of the experiments completed. Authors must complete this table and upload as a separate supplementary file.

The statistical methods used should be relevant and clearly stated. Special or complex statistical methods should be explained and referenced. Complex analyses should be performed with the assistance of a qualified statistician and should be extensively described in the supplemental material to ensure reproducibility of the results together with an access to the primary results in public database or upon request. Unqualified use of such analyses is strongly discouraged. The underlying assumptions of the statistical methods used should be tested to ensure that the assumptions are fulfilled. For small data sets and if variable distributions are non-normal, distribution free (non-parametric) statistical methods should be used. The actual p values – whether significant or not – should always be presented (not n.s.). Confidence intervals convey more information than p values and should be presented whenever possible. Continuous variables can always be summarized using the median and range which are therefore preferred. Only in the infrequent case of a normal distribution are the mean and standard deviation (SD) useful. Complex analyses (including Cox and logistic regression analysis) should be presented in sufficient detail: i.e., variable scoring, regression coefficients, standard errors and any constants. Odds-ratios or relative risks are not sufficient documentation of such analyses. The handling of any missing values in the data should be clearly specified. The number of statistical tests performed should be kept at a minimum to reduce spurious positive results. Explorative (hypothesis generating) analyses without confirmation using independent data are discouraged. Figures showing individual observations e.g., scatter plots are encouraged. Histograms may also be useful. Tables should indicate the number of observations on which each result is being based. A statistical review of the paper will be sought from an expert where necessary.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the internal system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned please give their equivalent in SI. For more information see

Drugs and chemicals
The source of reagents should be stated (name, city, and state within parentheses) when first cited. Drugs and chemicals should be used by generic name. If trademarks are mentioned, proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized, with the spelling carefully checked. The generic name or generic descriptor accompany the trade name the first time it appears. Other data relating to unique biological, biochemical, and/or immunological markers should also be included if available, with their source identified.

Cell lines
It is recommended that results should be replicated using more than one cell line. When using primary cells a minimum of three different batches should be used.

To help curb the inadvertent use of cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines, authors are asked to check their reagents against the list of commonly misidentified cell lines maintained by the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC;, also accessible through the NCBI BioSample database . If using a cell line that is on this list, authors should provide a scientific justification and state the identity issue in the methods section.

In the ‘Materials and methods’ section, the source of cells utilized (catalog number if obtained from vendor or cell bank, species, sex, strain, race, age of donor, whether primary or established) should be clearly indicated. The methods section should state if cell line authentication has been carried out and by what method (e.g., STR profiling) and when authentication testing was last performed for that cell line. Authors should be able to provide the test results upon request. Mycoplasma contamination testing status must also be reported.

Please note, it has come to our attention that several cell lines have been contaminated with different cell lines. Therefore, the Journal will no longer consider experiments using BEL7402, SMMC7721, MHCC97L, BEL7404, QGY7701, QGY7703, QSG7701 and SKHEP1 as HCC cell lines, except if the authors provide formal proof of their origin with STR, hepatic gene expression and specific gene mutations. Authors should clearly state this at first submission. For more information please read this Editorial in the journal:

Genomic and proteomic data
The Journal of Hepatology supports the efforts of databases that aggregate published data for the use of the scientific community. Therefore, appropriate data sets (including microarray data, protein or DNA sequences) must be deposited in an approved database, and an accession number or a specific access address must be included in the published paper. When working with publicly available databases the provenance of the data and the release number should be clearly indicated.
We encourage compliance with MIBBI guidelines (Minimum Information for Biological and Biomedical Investigations []).

DNA and protein sequences
Approved databases are GenBank or other members of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (EMBL or DDBJ) and SWISS-PROT.
For gene and protein names, all genes should be in italics and all proteins non-italicized. For murine the gene name should be in lowercase except the first letter e.g., gene: Abcb4; protein: Abcb4. For humans, the whole gene name is capitalized and italicized, the protein is non-italicized e.g., gene: ABCB4; protein ABCB4.

Microarray data
Data should be presented in MIAME-compliant standard format ( Approved databases are Gene Expression Omnibus ( and ArrayExpress (/
Other large datasets produced using genomics technologies (including but not limited to ChIP on Chip, Genotyping, aCGH and Tilling Arrays) must be deposited in an appropriate public repository. Please include the repository URL and the data accession number in the body of the manuscript upon submission. Data must be publicly accessible upon acceptance and publication of the manuscript as a Paper in Press. No data are to be withdrawn following publication.

Database linking
Elsevier requires authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See for more information and a full list of supported databases.

List of antibodies
Authors who use antibodies for immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, Western blots should include an antibody table indicating all antibodies used. This table should be included in the Supplementary data. This table should indicate catalog number (and/or clone number) or primary citation for each antibody, appropriate positive and negative controls, validation of each antibody and any necessary references.

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This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley data for journals page.

Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.

You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Data deposit and linking
Elsevier encourages and supports authors to share raw data sets underpinning their research publication where appropriate and enables interlinking of articles and data. More information on depositing, sharing and using research data.

Authors should be aware that manuscripts will be screened upon submission. Only the manuscripts, which fully comply with the submission requirements outlined and in which the level of English is of an acceptable standard will enter the peer review process. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

First submission
Once successful submission of a manuscript has taken place, an acknowledgement will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author on the manuscript. All subsequent correspondence will be with the designated corresponding author. The number of the manuscript should be used by the authors in all communications with the Editorial Office. All the manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editors and papers that are not considered by the editors to be strong candidates for publication or outside the scope of the Journal will be returned to the authors without detailed review, typically within 3-5 days. Otherwise, manuscripts will be sent to reviewers. After review, the corresponding author will be notified by letter of the decision taken by the Editor(s). This letter will be accompanied in most, but not all, cases by the comments of the reviewers. This letter will be sent via e-mail.

Resubmission of manuscripts. In some cases, authors will be invited to submit a revised version of the manuscript for further review. This invitation does not imply, in any case, that the revised version will be accepted for publication. In general, revised manuscripts must be received in the Editorial Office within four months of the date of the first decision. Authors should submit the resubmitted manuscript with all changes underlined. The resubmitted manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter stating that the manuscript has been revised according to the comments made by the Editor and the Reviewers. Figures and tables must be uploaded. Please ensure that a separate point by point response to the reviewers is included with the covering letter.
Please do not send revised manuscripts to the Editorial Office via e-mail. Revised manuscripts should be uploaded in the Elsevier Editorial System website.

Proofs will be made available to the author(s) to be checked. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to make sure that the quality and accuracy of the manuscript, figures, and tables in the proofs is correct. Authors should submit their proof corrections within 48 hours if the corrections are minor, to expedite publication. All questions arising after acceptance of a paper, especially those concerning proofs, should be directed to the Publisher, Elsevier, Radarweg 29, 1043 NX Amsterdam, The Netherlands, tel.: +31 (0)20 485 2533, e-mail: [email protected]. Further changes or additions to the edited manuscript after these corrections cannot be accepted.

Publishing fees
Submission and publication is free of charge. The Journal of Hepatology has a graphic design team that is responsible for re-stylizing all tables, charts, and figures to improve the readability and presentation of the Journal of Hepatology, as well as to give it a unique style that is present across all articles. This service is free of charge.
Color figures using colors different from the Journal of Hepatology (e.g., Immunofluorescence, photographs) are charged if the figures appear in color in the printed version. Color figures online only are free of charge.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

Peer review
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Open access
This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform, for which a fee of US $4500 applies (for further information on open access see Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at Authors of accepted articles, who wish to take advantage of this option, should complete and submit the order form (available at Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author, including the right to post a revised personal version of your article on your own website. More information can be found here: Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

Offprints must be ordered in advance. An order form indicating the cost of the offprints is sent from the Publisher with page proofs. Offprint orders, payments, and inquiries must be forwarded to the Publisher, not to the Editorial Office.

Announcements of meetings that could be of interest to the readers of the Journal of Hepatology should be sent to the Editorial Office at least 4 months before the date of publication. Short announcements are published free of charge. Large announcements are considered as advertising and the prices vary according to the size and the number of insertions.

Press releases
The Journal of Hepatology along with Elsevier are now selecting exceptional articles for press release. Upon acceptance of the article the Associate Editor and Editorial office will discuss the suitability of an article for a press release and will inform the corresponding authors for approval. There are a limited number of press releases and articles are rarely selected.

Information about advertisements in the Journal of Hepatology can be obtained from the Publisher.

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Contact the Editorial office

Contact Information:
Editorial Office
7, Rue Daubin
CH-1203 Geneva
Telephone: +41 22 807 03 63
Editorial Office e-mail: [email protected]
Manuscript submission:

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