Lay Summaries - Volume 74 Issue 2

Lay Summary:  Patients with decompensated cirrhosis related to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are at high risk of additional decompensation events and death. Post hoc analyses in previous pilot studies suggested that emricasan might improve portal hypertension and liver function. In this larger randomized study, emricasan did not decrease the number of decompensation events or improve liver function in patients with a history of decompensated cirrhosis related to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Lay Summary:  The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a key serum marker for viral replication. Loss of HBsAg is considered stable remission, which can be achieved with antiviral treatments. We have investigated whether the ratios of the different components of HBsAg, namely the large (LHBs) and medium (MHBs) HBsAg during different treatments are associated with the occurrence of HBsAg loss. We found that LHBs and MHBs decrease earlier than total HBsAg before HBsAg loss and we propose LHBs and MHBs as promising novel biomarker candidates for predicting cure of HBV infection.
Lay Summary:  To facilitate HCV elimination, those at highest risk of infection and transmission are a treatment priority. This study shows the successes of Australia's universal provision of DAA therapy in reducing the barriers to treatment which have historically persisted among people who inject drugs. Despite higher DAA therapy uptake among those with recent drug dependence, gaps remain. Strategies which aim to reduce marginalisation and increase treatment uptake to ensure equitable HCV elimination must be advanced.
Lay Summary:  Egypt has a major national HCV testing and treatment programme with the goal of eliminating HCV infection. We assessed the impact of a comprehensive HCV prevention, test and treat programme in 73 villages that achieved high coverage of testing and treatment on the subsequent incidence of new HCV infections in nine of the villages. We re-tested people who were previously HCV antibody negative and found that the rate of new HCV infections was greatly reduced compared to previous estimates. We also found that exposure through surgery and dental procedures were associated with these new infections. This highlights the importance of continued strengthening of infection control and prevention measures, alongside treatment scale-up.
Lay Summary:  Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune hepatitis and are traditionally tested for by immunofluorescence assays on rodent tissue sections. Herein, we demonstrate that human epithelioma cells can be used as a reliable substrate for immunofluorescence testing. ELISA-based testing is also a potentially reliable alternative for autoantibody assessment in autoimmune hepatitis. We propose the implementation of these testing methods into the simplified criteria for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis.
Lay Summary:  Around one-third of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) needs additional medical therapy alongside ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment. In this clinical trial, the addition of the corticosteroid budesonide did not improve liver histology; there were however relevant improvements in liver blood tests.
    Cirrhosis and Liver Failure
  • Abstract Image
    Florence Wong, Salvatore Piano, Virendra Singh, Michele Bartoletti, Rakhi Maiwall, Carlo Alessandria, Javier Fernandez, Elza Cotrim Soares, Dong Joon Kim, Sung Eun Kim, Monica Marino, Julio Vorobioff, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro Barea, Manuela Merli, Laure Elkrief, Victor Vargas, Aleksander Krag, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Laurentius Adrianto Lesmana, Claudio Toledo, Sebastian Marciano, Xavier Verhelst, Nicolas Intagliata, Liane Rabinowich, Luis Colombato, Sang Gyune Kim, Alexander Gerbes, Francois Durand, Juan Pablo Roblero, Tony Bruns, Eileen Laurel Yoon, Marcos Girala, Nikolaos T. Pyrsopoulos, Tae Hun Kim, Sun Young Yim, Adria Juanola, Adrian Gadano, Paolo Angeli on behalf of the International Club of Ascites Global Study Group
    Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 74, Issue 2, p330–339
Lay Summary:  Bacterial infections can trigger a sudden deterioration in an otherwise stable cirrhotic patient, a condition known as acute-on-chronic liver failure or ACLF. This study has found that the development of ACLF following bacterial infection occurs most commonly in the Indian subcontinent and less so in Southern Europe. The common infections that can trigger ACLF include infection of the abdominal fluid, known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and by bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Patients who develop ACLF following a bacterial infection have high death rates and are frequently unable to clear the infection.
Lay Summary:  The ANSWER study has shown that long-term albumin administration improves survival and prevents the occurrence of major complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. This study shows that the achievement of these beneficial effects is related to a significant increase in serum albumin concentration. Even though the best results follow the achievement of a serum albumin concentration of 4 g/dl, a survival benefit is also achieved in patients who fail to normalise serum albumin.
Lay Summary:  Hyperprogressive disease is an unexpected response pattern observed in patients treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor. This study revealed that hyperprogressive disease occurs in a fraction of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody, providing evidence to encourage careful monitoring of patients to prevent clinical deterioration induced by PD-1 blockade.
Lay Summary:  In this study, we identified and functionally characterized RSK2-inactivating mutations in human hepatocellular carcinoma and demonstrated their association with aggressive tumor behavior. Mutations in RSK2 drive signaling pathways with known oncogenic potential, leading to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and potentially sensitizing tumors to sorafenib treatment.
Lay Summary:  Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients with acute or chronic liver failure is an alternative to overcome the deceased donor shortage. The potential mismatch between graft and body size is a problem that needs to be solved for LDLT recipients. Herein, we evaluated the impact of simultaneous splenectomy and showed that it was associated with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing LDLT.
Lay Summary:  The liver vasculature is supposed to play a major role in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which can lead to liver failure and liver cancer. Herein, we discovered that structural and transcriptional changes induced by genetic deletion of the transcription factor GATA4 in the hepatic endothelium were sufficient to cause liver fibrosis. Activation of the transcription factor MYC and de novo expression of the “angiocrine” growth factor PDGFB were identified as downstream drivers of fibrosis and as potential therapeutic targets for this potentially fatal disease.
Lay Summary:  Protein SUMOylation is a dynamic post-translational event implicated in numerous cellular processes. This study revealed dysregulated protein SUMOylation in polycystic liver disease, which promotes hepatic cystogenesis. Administration of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a natural UBC9-dependent SUMOylation inhibitor, halted polycystic liver disease in experimental models, thus representing a potential therapeutic agent for patients.
Lay Summary:  Members of the interleukin-6 cytokine family signal via the receptor subunit gp130 and are involved in multiple processes in the liver. However, as several liver cell types respond to interleukin-6 family cytokines, it is difficult to delineate cell type-specific effects. Using a novel mouse model, we provide evidence that hepatocyte-specific gp130 activation is sufficient to trigger a robust systemic innate immune response.
Lay Summary:  In patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) detected additional liver metastases after computed tomography (CT). In the majority of these patients, the oncological therapy was changed after obtaining the CEUS results. After staging-CT, 21% of hepatic lesions remained unclear. In these cases, CEUS was accurate to either reveal or exclude liver metastasis in nearly all patients and could reduce costs (e.g., number of MRI scans).