Lay Summaries - Volume 77 Issue 2
Lay Summary: Liver disease often progresses silently without symptoms and thus the diagnosis is often delayed until severe complications occur and prognosis becomes poor. In order to identify individuals in the general population who have a high risk of developing severe liver disease in the future, we developed and validated a Chronic Liver Disease (CLivD) risk prediction score, based on age, sex, alcohol use, waist-hip ratio, diabetes, and smoking, with or without measurement of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase. The CLivD score can be used as part of health counseling, and for planning further liver investigations and follow-up.
Lay Summary: XBP1 is a transcription factor that is upregulated in liver tissues of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Conditional knockout of Xbp1 in hepatocytes resulted in decreased lipid accumulation in mice, while genetic deletion of Xbp1 in macrophages ameliorated nutritional steatohepatitis and fibrosis in mice. Pharmacological inhibition of XBP1 protects against steatohepatitis and fibrosis, highlighting a promising therapeutic strategy for NASH.
Lay Summary: We describe the first cases of acute hepatitis related to rat hepatitis E virus in Europe. The prevalence found in our study suggest that rat hepatitis E virus could be considered an emerging disease in Europe.
Lay Summary: Immunological studies on chronic HBV remain largely restricted to assessment of peripheral responses due to the limited access to the site of infection, the liver. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed livers from a well-defined cohort of patients with chronic HBV and uninfected controls with state-of-the-art techniques, and evaluated the differences in gene expression profiles and inflammation characteristics across distinct disease phases in patients with chronic HBV.
Lay Summary: The current study unveils that eosinophils are recruited into the liver and play a protective function during acute liver injury caused by acetaminophen overdose. The data demonstrate that IL-33-activated eosinophils trigger macrophages to release high amounts of CCL24, which promotes hepatic eosinophil recruitment. Our findings suggest that eosinophils could be an effective cell-based therapy for the treatment of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury.
Lay Summary: Current treatment options for patients living with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are not optimal due to inadequate effectiveness or undesirable side effects. Patients with PBC who took seladelpar, a new treatment being developed for PBC, at increasing doses (2, 5, or 10 mg/day) for 1 year had clinically significant, dose-dependent improvements in key liver tests. Treatment appeared safe and was not associated with any worsening in patient self-reported itch scores.
Lay Summary: New approaches are needed in community settings to reduce the late diagnosis of chronic liver disease. Thus, in a community cohort, we assessed the ability of 20 routine risk scores to predict 10-year risk of cirrhosis-related complications. We show that 2 routine risk scores in particular – “APRI” and “FIB-4” – could be repurposed to estimate an individual’s 10-year risk of cirrhosis-related morbidity. Adding genetic risk factor information to these scores only modestly improved performance.
Lay Summary: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious problem that can affect people with cirrhosis. When someone develops hepatic encephalopathy, there are 2 main treatments. The first-line treatment is called lactulose. If episodes of hepatic encephalopathy happen on lactulose, another treatment called rifaximin is recommended. In this study, we found that compared to White patients, Black and Hispanic patients are less likely to be prescribed rifaximin, receive fewer rifaximin refills, spend more on rifaximin, and have less access to subspecialists who are familiar with rifaximin. We conclude that efforts to address the cost of rifaximin and access to gastroenterologists could help improve these disparities.
Lay Summary: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a fast-growing tumour; hence, areas of the tumour often have insufficient vasculature and become hypoxic. The presence of hypoxia within tumours has been shown to negatively impact on the survival of patients with tumours, including HCC. Herein, we identified the Ephrin-A3/EphA2 axis as a key functional driver of tumour initiation and progression in response to hypoxia. Additionally, we showed that SREBP1-ACLY-mediated metabolic rewiring was an important downstream effector that induced cancer stemness in response to Ephrin-A3/EphA2 forward-signalling.
Lay Summary: The role of the immune response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. T cells can mediate protection against tumor cells but are frequently dysfunctional and exhausted in cancer. We found that patients with a predominance of exhausted CD8+ T cells (TEX) had poor survival compared to patients with a predominance of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). This correlated with the molecular profile, metabolic and functional status of these cell populations. The enrichment of TEX was independently associated with prognosis in addition to disease stage, age and tumor markers. A high TRM proportion was also associated with better outcomes following checkpoint therapy. Thus, these T-cell populations are novel biomarkers with relevance in HCC.
Lay Summary: The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult populations means that NAFLD is poised to be the major cause of liver cancer in the 21st century. We showed a strong “field effect” in the livers of patients with NAFLD, wherein activated β-catenin was involved in reshaping the tumor-immune microenvironment.
Lay Summary: New and easy-to-use transgenic mouse models of primary liver cancers have been generated, with mutations in the gene encoding beta-catenin, which are frequent in both adult and pediatric primary liver cancers. The mice develop both types of cancer, constituting a strong preclinical model.
Lay Summary: The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of immune defense during acute systemic infections. We identified a proinflammatory hepatocyte subpopulation and demonstrated that the interactions of this subpopulation with recruited macrophages are pivotal in the immune response during endotoxemia. These novel findings provide a conceptual framework for the discovery of rational therapeutic targets in acute infection.
Lay Summary: Hepatocellular caricinoma (HCC) development is closely linked to metabolic dysregulation and an altered tumor microenvironment. Herein, we show that loss of the metabolic regulator Sirt5 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, which is associated with abnormally elevated bile acids and subsequently an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors HCC development. Targeting this mechanism could be a promising clinical strategy for HCC.
Lay Summary: Hypoxia (low oxygen levels) is prevalent in the hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment and promotes the phagocytosis (ingestion and elimination) of tumour DNA by CD103+ dendritic cells (a type of immune cell). Blockade of the cell surface protein CD47 resulted in activation of CD103+ dendritic cells which led to the recruitment and activation of natural killer cells (a different immune cell). When activated, these cells exhibit an antitumour effect.